喜瑪拉雅山脈山頂 ê 巨大噴流

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探索宇宙1!逐工會揀一幅無仝款 ê 影像抑是相片,𤆬你熟似咱這个迷人 ê 宇宙,閣有專業天文學者2為你解說3

[漢羅] 喜瑪拉雅山脈天頂 ê 巨大噴流

緊來看喔!毋知你敢捌看過這款暴雷? 這張相片是頂禮拜 tī 中國 kah 不丹 交界 ê 喜馬拉雅山脈 方向翕著–ê,是發生 tī 大氣層內底 ê 暴雷 kah 巨大噴流。 這張合成影像內底有 4 條長長 ê 噴流,發生 ê 時間互相差幾若分鐘爾爾。 巨大噴流 是這世紀才開始有紀錄–ê,這是一款爍爁放電現象,出現 tī 一寡 暴雷 kah 伊頂懸 ê 地球 電離層 之間。 伊是一款特別 ê 爍爁,kah 一般 ê 雲對雲爍爁、雲對地爍爁 是差足濟–ê。 相片底部 ê 巨大噴流,較成是 雲對天 雷殛,咱 kā 叫做 藍色噴流。 頂懸紅色 ê 部份,較成是 頂層大氣 ê 放電現象,咱 kā 叫做 紅色精靈。 巨大噴流 ê 機制 kah 引起 ê 原因,到今猶咧研究。 目前咱已經知影講,因為這款噴流會迵過地球無仝層大氣,所以會當減少大氣層之間電荷無平均 ê 情形。 你若是想欲看著巨大噴流,會使踮一个離暴雷較遠、視野無去予閘著 ê 所在,較揣會著。

[POJ] Hí-má-la-ngé soaⁿ-me̍h thiⁿ-téng ê kī-tāi phùn-liû

Kín lâi khòaⁿ–o͘h! M̄-chai lí kám bat khòaⁿ-kòe chit-khoán pō-lûi? Chit-tiuⁿ siòng-phìⁿ sī téng-lé-pài tī Tiong-kok kah Put-tan kau-kài ê Hí-má-la-ngé soaⁿ-me̍h hong-hiòng hip–tio̍h–ê, sī hoat-seng tī tāi-khì-chân lāi-té ê pō-lûi kah kī-tāi phùn-liû. Chit-tiuⁿ ha̍p-sêng iáⁿ-siōng lāi-té ū 4 tiâu tn̂g-tn̂g ê phùn-liû, hoat-seng ê sî-kan hō͘-siong chha kúi-nā hun-cheng niā-niā. Kī-tāi phùn-liû sī chit sè-kí chiah khai-sí ū kì-lio̍k–ê, che-sī chi̍t-khoán sih-nah pàng-tiān hiān-siōng, chhut-hiān tī chi̍t-kóa pō-lûi kah i téng-koân ê Tē-kiû tiān-lî-chân chi-kan. I sī chi̍t-khoán te̍k-pia̍t ê sih-nah, kah it-poaⁿ ê hûn tùi hûn sih-nah, hûn tùi tē sih-nah sī chha chiok chē–ê. Siòng-phìⁿ té-pō͘ ê kī-tāi phùn-liû, khah sêng sī hûn tùi thiⁿ lûi-ke̍k, lán kā kiò-chò nâ-sek phùn-liû. Téng-koân âng-sek ê pō͘-hūn, khah sêng sī téng-chân tāi-khì ê sih-nah, lán kā kiò-chò âng-sek cheng-lêng. Kī-tāi phùn-liû ê ki-chè kah ín-khí ê goân-in, kàu-taⁿ iáu leh gián-kiù. Bo̍k-chêng lán í-keng chai-iáⁿ kóng, in-ūi chit-khoán phùn-liû ē thàng-kòe Tē-kiû bô-kâng chân tāi-khì, só͘-í ē-tàng kiám-chió tāi-khì-chân chi-kan tiān-hô bô pêng-kin ê chêng-hêng. Lí nā-sī siūⁿ beh khòaⁿ-tio̍h kī-tāi phùn-liû, ē-sái tiàm chi̍t-ê lî pō-lûi khah hn̄g, sī-iá bô khì hō͘ cha̍h-tio̍h ê só͘-chāi, khah chhōe-ē-tio̍h.

[KIP] Hí-má-la-ngé suann-me̍h thinn-tíng ê kī-tāi phùn-liû

Kín lâi khuànn–ooh! M̄-tsai lí kám bat khuànn-kuè tsit-khuán pō-luî? Tsit-tiunn siòng-phìnn sī tíng-lé-pài tī Tiong-kok kah Put-tan kau-kài ê Hí-má-la-ngé suann-me̍h hong-hiòng hip–tio̍h–ê, sī huat-sing tī tāi-khì-tsân lāi-té ê pō-luî kah kī-tāi phùn-liû. Tsit-tiunn ha̍p-sîng iánn-siōng lāi-té ū 4 tiâu tn̂g-tn̂g ê phùn-liû, huat-sing ê sî-kan hōo-siong tsha kuí-nā hun-tsing niā-niā. Kī-tāi phùn-liû sī tsit sè-kí tsiah khai-sí ū kì-lio̍k–ê, tse-sī tsi̍t-khuán sih-nah pàng-tiān hiān-siōng, tshut-hiān tī tsi̍t-kuá pō-luî kah i tíng-kuân ê Tē-kiû tiān-lî-tsân tsi-kan. I sī tsi̍t-khuán ti̍k-pia̍t ê sih-nah, kah it-puann ê hûn tuì hûn sih-nah, hûn tuì tē sih-nah sī tsha tsiok tsē–ê. Siòng-phìnn té-pōo ê kī-tāi phùn-liû, khah sîng sī hûn tuì thinn luî-ki̍k, lán kā kiò-tsò nâ-sik phùn-liû. Tíng-kuân âng-sik ê pōo-hūn, khah sîng sī tíng-tsân tāi-khì ê sih-nah, lán kā kiò-tsò âng-sik tsing-lîng. Kī-tāi phùn-liû ê ki-tsè kah ín-khí ê guân-in, kàu-tann iáu leh gián-kiù. Bo̍k-tsîng lán í-king tsai-iánn kóng, in-uī tsit-khuán phùn-liû ē thàng-kuè Tē-kiû bô-kâng tsân tāi-khì, sóo-í ē-tàng kiám-tsió tāi-khì-tsân tsi-kan tiān-hô bô pîng-kin ê tsîng-hîng. Lí nā-sī siūnn beh khuànn-tio̍h kī-tāi phùn-liû, ē-sái tiàm tsi̍t-ê lî pō-luî khah hn̄g, sī-iá bô khì hōo tsa̍h-tio̍h ê sóo-tsāi, khah tshuē-ē-tio̍h.

[English] Gigantic Jets over Himalayan Mountains

Yes, but can your thunderstorm do this? Pictured here are gigantic jets shooting up from a thunderstorm last week toward the Himalayan Mountains in China and Bhutan. The composite image captured four long jets that occurred only minutes apart. Gigantic jets, documented only in this century, are a type of lightning discharge that occurs between some thunderstorms and the Earth’s ionosphere high above them. They are an unusual type of lightning that is much different from regular cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning. The bottoms of gigantic jets appear similar to a cloud-to-above strike called blue jets, while the tops appear similar to upper-atmosphere red sprites. Although the mechanism and trigger that cause gigantic jets remains a topic of research, it is clear that the jets reduce charge imbalance between different parts of Earth’s atmosphere. A good way to look for gigantic jets is to watch a powerful but distant thunderstorm from a clear location.

詞彙學習(漢羅/POJ/KIP/華語/English)

  • 【藍色噴流】nâ-sek phùn-liû/nâ-sik phùn-liû/藍色噴流/blue jets
  • 【紅色精靈】âng-sek cheng-lêng/âng-sik tsing-lîng/紅色精靈/red sprites
  • 【巨大噴流】kī-tāi phùn-liû/kī-tāi phùn-liû/巨大噴流/Gigantic jets
  • 【暴雷】pō-lûi/pō-luî/雷暴/thunderstorms
  • 【爍爁】sih-nah/sih-nah/閃電/lightning
  • 【大氣層】tāi-khì-chân/tāi-khì-tsân/大氣層/atmosphere
  • 【電離層】tiān-lî-chân/tiān-lî-tsân/電離層/ionosphere
  • 【喜瑪拉雅山脈】Hí-má-la-ngá soaⁿ-me̍h/Hí-má-la-ngá suann-me̍h/喜瑪拉雅山脈/Himalayan Mountains
  • 【雲對雲爍爁】hûn tùi hûn sih-nah/hûn tuì hûn sih-nah/雲對雲閃電/cloud-to-cloud lightning
  • 【雲對地爍爁】hûn tùi tē sih-nah/hûn tuì tē sih-nah/雲對地閃電/cloud-to-ground lightning
  • 【雲對天雷殛】hûn tùi thiⁿ lûi-kek/hûn tuì thinn luî-kik/雲對天雷殛/cloud-to-above strike
  • 【頂層大氣】téng-chân tāi-khì/tíng-tsân tāi-khì/高層大氣/upper-atmosphere
  • 【電荷】tiān-hô/tiān-hô/電荷/charge

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