超新星安魂曲:到今已經出現三擺 ê 超新星

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探索宇宙1!逐工會揀一幅無仝款 ê 影像抑是相片,𤆬你熟似咱這个迷人 ê 宇宙,閣有專業天文學者2為你解說3

[漢羅] 超新星安魂曲:到今已經看著三擺 ê 超新星

咱已經看著這粒超新星三擺矣!毋知當時會看著第四擺? 一粒遙遠 ê 恆星變做 超新星 爆炸了後,咱若是運勢袂䆀,to̍h 會看著伊一擺。 像這粒 AT 2016jka(嘛叫做「超新星安魂曲」),爆炸 ê 恆星拄仔好 chhāi tī 星系團 MACS J0138 中心 ê 後壁。 比較伊 ê 哈伯太空望遠鏡 影像了後,咱發現講咱會看著伊三擺。 倒爿這張是 2016 年翕 ê,tī 下跤附近有圓箍仔箍–起來 ê 三粒 超新星。 正爿彼張是 2019 年翕 ê,tī 圓箍仔內底已經看無彼三粒矣,因為這三粒已經暗甲 giōng-欲 無–去矣。 毋閣,電腦 tùi 星系團透鏡 建立 ê 模型 表示,仝這个 超新星 ê 第四粒對應影像應該愛出現 tī 正爿這張相片 頂懸 ê 圓箍仔遐。 毋閣愛等到當時咱才看會著咧? 上厲害 ê 模型預測講,伊會 tī 2037 年閣爆發一擺,毋閣這有兩年 ê 精差,因為 星系團透鏡 ê 質量分佈 kah 恆星爆炸 ê 光度歷史 猶無確定。 16 冬了後 ê 地球人,若是有較精確 ê 預測 kah 較敏感 ê 監測,可能會當翕著第四粒對應影像,嘛有可能會同齊學著閣較濟星系團 kah 超新星 ê 智識。

[POJ] Chhiau-sin-seng An-hûn-khiok: Kàu-taⁿ í-keng khòaⁿ-tio̍h saⁿ pái ê Chhiau-sin-seng

Lán í-keng khòaⁿ-tio̍h chit-lia̍p chhiau-sin-seng saⁿ-pái ah! M̄-chai tang-sî ē khòaⁿ-tio̍h tē-sì-pái? Chi̍t-lia̍p iâu-oán ê hêng-chhiⁿ piàn-chò chhiau-sin-seng po̍k-chà liáu-āu, lán nā-sī ūn-sè bōe-bái, to̍h ē khòaⁿ-tio̍h i chi̍t-pái. Chhiūⁿ chit-lia̍p AT 2016jka (mā kiò-chò “Chhiau-sin-seng An-hûn-khiok”), po̍k-chà ê hêng-chhiⁿ tú-á-hó chhāi tī seng-hē-thoân MACS J0138 tiong-sim ê āu-piah. Pí-kàu i ê Ha-peh-thài-khong-bōng-oán-kiàⁿ iáⁿ-siōng liáu-āu, lán hoat-hiān kóng lán ē khòaⁿ-tio̍h i saⁿ-pái. Tò-pêng chit-tiuⁿ sī jī-khòng-it-lio̍k nî hip ê, tī ē-kha hū-kīn ū îⁿ-kho͘-á kho͘–khí-lâi ê saⁿ-lia̍p chhiau-sin-seng. Chiàⁿ-pêng hit-tiuⁿ sī jī-khòng-i̍t-kiú nî hip ê, tī îⁿ-kho͘-á lāi-té í-keng khòaⁿ-bô hit saⁿ-lia̍p ah, in-ūi chit saⁿ-lia̍p í-keng àm-kah giōng-beh bô–khì ah. M̄-koh, tiān-náu tùi seng-hē-thoân thàu-kiàⁿ kiàn-li̍p ê bô͘-hêng piáu-sī, kâng chit-ê chhiau-sin-seng ê tē-sì-lia̍p tùi-èng iáⁿ-siōng eng-kai ài chhut-hiān tī chiàⁿ-pêng chit-tiuⁿ siòng-phìⁿ téng-koân ê îⁿ-kho͘-á hiah. M̄-koh ài tán-kàu tang-sî lán chiah khòaⁿ-ē-tio̍h leh? Siōng lī-hāi ê bô͘-hêng ū-chhek kóng, i ē tī jī-khòng-sam-chhit nî koh po̍k-hoat chi̍t-pái, m̄-koh che ū nn̄g-nî ê cheng-chha, in-ūi seng-hē-thoân thàu-kiàⁿ ê chit-liōng hun-pò͘ kah hêng-chhiⁿ po̍k-chà ê kng-tō͘ le̍k-sú iah-bô khak-tēng. Cha̍p-la̍k tang liáu-āu ê Tē-kiû-lâng, nā-sī ū khah cheng-khak ê ū-chhek kah khah bín-kám ê kàm-chhek, khó-lêng ē-tàng hip-tio̍h tē-sì-lia̍p tùi-èng iáⁿ-siōng, mā ū khó-lêng ē tâng-chê o̍h-tio̍h koh-khah chōe seng-hē-thoân kah chhiau-sin-seng ê tì-sek.

[KIP] Tshiau-sin-sing An-hûn-khiok: Kàu-tann í-king khuànn-tio̍h sann pái ê Tshiau-sin-sing

Lán í-king khuànn-tio̍h tsit-lia̍p tshiau-sin-sing sann-pái ah! M̄-tsai tang-sî ē khuànn-tio̍h tē-sì-pái? Tsi̍t-lia̍p iâu-uán ê hîng-tshinn piàn-tsò tshiau-sin-sing po̍k-tsà liáu-āu, lán nā-sī ūn-sè buē-bái, to̍h ē khuànn-tio̍h i tsi̍t-pái. Tshiūnn tsit-lia̍p AT 2016jka (mā kiò-tsò “Tshiau-sin-sing An-hûn-khiok”), po̍k-tsà ê hîng-tshinn tú-á-hó tshāi tī sing-hē-thuân MACS J0138 tiong-sim ê āu-piah. Pí-kàu i ê Ha-peh-thài-khong-bōng-uán-kiànn iánn-siōng liáu-āu, lán huat-hiān kóng lán ē khuànn-tio̍h i sann-pái. Tò-pîng tsit-tiunn sī jī-khòng-it-lio̍k nî hip ê, tī ē-kha hū-kīn ū înn-khoo-á khoo–khí-lâi ê sann-lia̍p tshiau-sin-sing. Tsiànn-pîng hit-tiunn sī jī-khòng-i̍t-kiú nî hip ê, tī înn-khoo-á lāi-té í-king khuànn-bô hit sann-lia̍p ah, in-uī tsit sann-lia̍p í-king àm-kah giōng-beh bô–khì ah. M̄-koh, tiān-náu tuì sing-hē-thuân thàu-kiànn kiàn-li̍p ê bôo-hîng piáu-sī, kâng tsit-ê tshiau-sin-sing ê tē-sì-lia̍p tuì-ìng iánn-siōng ing-kai ài tshut-hiān tī tsiànn-pîng tsit-tiunn siòng-phìnn tíng-kuân ê înn-khoo-á hiah. M̄-koh ài tán-kàu tang-sî lán tsiah khuànn-ē-tio̍h leh? Siōng lī-hāi ê bôo-hîng ū-tshik kóng, i ē tī jī-khòng-sam-tshit nî koh po̍k-huat tsi̍t-pái, m̄-koh tse ū nn̄g-nî ê tsing-tsha, in-uī sing-hē-thuân thàu-kiànn ê tsit-liōng hun-pòo kah hîng-tshinn po̍k-tsà ê kng-tōo li̍k-sú iah-bô khak-tīng. Tsa̍p-la̍k tang liáu-āu ê Tē-kiû-lâng, nā-sī ū khah tsing-khak ê ū-tshik kah khah bín-kám ê kàm-tshik, khó-lîng ē-tàng hip-tio̍h tē-sì-lia̍p tuì-ìng iánn-siōng, mā ū khó-lîng ē tâng-tsê o̍h-tio̍h koh-khah tsuē sing-hē-thuân kah tshiau-sin-sing ê tì-sik.

[English] SN Requiem: A Supernova Seen Three Times So Far

We’ve seen this same supernova three times – when will we see it a fourth? When a distant star explodes in a supernova, we’re lucky if we see it even once. In the case of AT 2016jka (“SN Requiem”), because the exploding star happened to be lined up behind the center of a galaxy cluster (MACS J0138 in this case), a comparison of Hubble Space Telescope images demonstrate that we saw it three times. These three supernova images are highlighted in circles near the bottom of the left frame taken in 2016. On the right frame, taken in 2019, the circles are empty because all three images of the single supernova had faded. Computer modeling of the cluster lens, however, indicates that a fourth image of the same supernova should eventually appear in the upper circle on the right image. But when? The best models predict this will happen in 2037, but this date is uncertain by about two years because of ambiguities in the mass distribution of the cluster lens and the brightness history of the stellar explosion. With refined predictions and vigilant monitoring, Earthlings living 16 years from now may be able to catch this fourth image – and perhaps learn more about both galaxy clusters and supernovas at once.

詞彙學習(台語漢字/POJ/KIP/華語漢字/English)

  • 【超新星安魂曲】Chhiau-sin-seng An-hûn-khiok/Tshiau-sin-sing An-hûn-khiok/超新星安魂曲/SN Requiem
  • 【超新星】chhiau-sin-seng/tshiau-sin-sing/超新星/Supernova
  • 【星系團】seng-hē-thoân/sing-hē-thuân/星系團/galaxy cluster
  • 【星系團透鏡】seng-hē-thoân thàu-kiàⁿ/sing-hē-thuân thàu-kiànn/星系團透鏡/cluster len
  • 【哈伯太空望遠鏡】Ha-peh-thài-khong-bōng-oán-kiàⁿ/Ha-peh-thài-khong-bōng-uán-kiànn/哈伯太空望遠鏡/Hubble Space Telescope

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