電腦模擬:第一批恆星 ê 形成

探索宇宙1!逐工會揀一幅無仝款 ê 影像抑是相片,𤆬你熟似咱這个迷人 ê 宇宙,閣有專業天文學者2為你解說3

[漢羅] 電腦模擬:第一批恆星 ê 形成

第一批恆星是按怎形成 ê? 為著欲揣著這个答案,才有有這个 SPHINX 電腦模擬來解說 tī 早期宇宙 ê 恆星形成 過程。 一寡結果 to̍h 展示 tī 這个影片 內底。 這是 ùi 幾若百萬年前 ê 大霹靂 開始,時間 to̍h 標 tī 倒爿頂懸。 大霹靂 了後一億年,物質 to̍h tī 宇宙內底湠到 傷平均 矣,這个時陣無法度生出新 ê 恆星。 除了 背景輻射 以外,宇宙是足暗 ê。 真緊,一寡內底有豐富 水素 氣體 ê 物質 to̍h 開始合成 第一批恆星。 Tī 這个 縮時攝影影片 內底,茄仔色是氣體,白色是光,金色是高能輻射,伊 kā 水素 離子化,分解做紮電 ê 電子 kah 質子。 這个金色區域嘛會當追蹤上大質量恆星,in ê 一生上尾會變做 能量足強 ê 超新星 才會收煞。 這个圓箍仔插圖內底,是中央區域 形成星系 ê 特寫。 這个模擬有繼續落去,一直到宇宙年歲 5.5 億歲為止。 為著欲評估 SPHINX 模擬 ê 精確度 kah in 用 ê 假設,這个模擬結果毋若會提來 kah 這馬 ê 深空觀測做比較,嘛會提來 kah NASA 按算欲用 ê JWST 望遠鏡 閣較直接觀測 早期宇宙 ê 計畫做比較。

[POJ] Tiān-náu bô͘-gí: Tē-it-phoe hêng-chhiⁿ ê hêng-sêng

Tē-it-phoe hêng-chhiⁿ sī án-ná hêng-sêng ê? Ūi-tio̍h beh chhōe-tio̍h chit-ê tap-àn, chiah ū chi̍t-ê SPHINX tiān-náu bô͘-gí lâi kái-soeh tī chá-kî ú-tiū ê hêng-chhiⁿ hêng-sêng kòe-têng. Chi̍t-kóa kiat-kó to̍h tiān-sī tī chit-ê iáⁿ-phìⁿ lāi-té. Che sī ùi kúi-nā-pah-bān nî chêng ê Tōa-phek-le̍k khai-sí, sî-kan to̍h piau tī tò-pêng téng-koân. Tōa-phek-le̍k liáu-āu chi̍t-ek nî, bu̍t-chit to̍h tī ú-tiū lāi-té thòaⁿ kàu siuⁿ pêng-kun ah, chit-ê sî-chūn bô-hoat-tō͘ seⁿ-chhut sin–ê hêng-chhiⁿ. Tû-liáu pōe-kéng hok-siā ì-gōa, ú-tiū sī chiok àm ê. Chin kín, chi̍t-kóa lāi-té ū hong-hù chúi-sò͘ khì-thé ê bu̍t-chit to̍h khai-sí ha̍p-sêng tē-it-phoe hêng-chhiⁿ. Tī chit-ê sok-sî-liap-iáⁿ iáⁿ-phìⁿ lāi-té, kiô-á-sek sī khì-thé, pe̍h-sek sī kng, kim-sek sī ko-lêng hok-siā, i kā chúi-sò͘ lî-chú-hòa, hun-kái chò chah-tiān ê tiān-chú kah chit-chú. chit-ê kim-sek khu-he̍k mā ē-tàng tui-chong siōng-tōa chit-liōng hêng-chhiⁿ, in ê it-seng siōng-bóe ē piàn-chò lêng-liōng chiok-kiông ê chhiau-sin-seng chiah-ē siu-soah. Chit-ê îⁿ-kho͘-á chhah-tô͘ lāi-té, sī tiong-ng khu-he̍k hêng-sêng seng-hē ê te̍k-siá. Chit-ê bô͘-gí ū kè-sio̍k lo̍h-khì, it-ti̍t kàu ú-tiū nî-hòe gō͘-tiám-gō͘ ek-hòe ûi-chí. Ūi-tio̍h beh pêng-kó͘ SPHINX bô͘-gí ê cheng-khak-tō͘ kah in iōng ê ká-siat, chit-ê bô͘-gí kiat-kó m̄-nā ē the̍h-lâi kah chit-má ê chhim-khong koan-chhek chò pí-kàu, mā ē the̍h-lâi kah NASA àn-sǹg beh iōng ê JWST bōng-oán-kiàⁿ koh-khah ti̍t-chiap koan-chhek chá-kî ú-tiū ê kè-ōe chò pí-kàu.

[KIP] Tiān-náu bôo-gí: Tē-it-phue hîng-tshinn ê hîng-sîng

Tē-it-phue hîng-tshinn sī án-ná hîng-sîng ê? Uī-tio̍h beh tshuē-tio̍h tsit-ê tap-àn, tsiah ū tsi̍t-ê SPHINX tiān-náu bôo-gí lâi kái-sueh tī tsá-kî ú-tiū ê hîng-tshinn hîng-sîng kuè-tîng. Tsi̍t-kuá kiat-kó to̍h tiān-sī tī tsit-ê iánn-phìnn lāi-té. Tse sī uì kuí-nā-pah-bān nî tsîng ê Tuā-phik-li̍k khai-sí, sî-kan to̍h piau tī tò-pîng tíng-kuân. Tuā-phik-li̍k liáu-āu tsi̍t-ik nî, bu̍t-tsit to̍h tī ú-tiū lāi-té thuànn kàu siunn pîng-kun ah, tsit-ê sî-tsūn bô-huat-tōo senn-tshut sin–ê hîng-tshinn. Tû-liáu puē-kíng hok-siā ì-guā, ú-tiū sī tsiok àm ê. Tsin kín, tsi̍t-kuá lāi-té ū hong-hù tsuí-sòo khì-thé ê bu̍t-tsit to̍h khai-sí ha̍p-sîng tē-it-phue hîng-tshinn. Tī tsit-ê sok-sî-liap-iánn iánn-phìnn lāi-té, kiô-á-sik sī khì-thé, pe̍h-sik sī kng, kim-sik sī ko-lîng hok-siā, i kā tsuí-sòo lî-tsú-huà, hun-kái tsò tsah-tiān ê tiān-tsú kah tsi̍t-tsú. tsit-ê kim-sik khu-hi̍k mā ē-tàng tui-tsong siōng-tuā tsit-liōng hîng-tshinn, in ê it-sing siōng-bué ē piàn-tsò lîng-liōng tsiok-kiông ê tshiau-sin-sing tsiah-ē siu-suah. Tsit-ê înn-khoo-á tshah-tôo lāi-té, sī tiong-ng khu-hi̍k hîng-sîng sing-hē ê ti̍k-siá. Tsit-ê bôo-gí ū kè-sio̍k lo̍h-khì, it-ti̍t kàu ú-tiū nî-huè gōo-tiám-gōo ik-huè uî-tsí. Uī-tio̍h beh pîng-kóo SPHINX bôo-gí ê tsing-khak-tōo kah in iōng ê ká-siat, tsit-ê bôo-gí kiat-kó m̄-nā ē the̍h-lâi kah tsit-má ê tshim-khong kuan-tshik tsò pí-kàu, mā ē the̍h-lâi kah NASA àn-sǹg beh iōng ê JWST bōng-uán-kiànn koh-khah ti̍t-tsiap kuan-tshik tsá-kî ú-tiū ê kè-uē tsò pí-kàu.

[English] Simulation: Formation of the First Stars

How did the first stars form? To help find out, the SPHINX computer simulation of star formation in the very early universe was created, some results of which are shown in the featured video. Time since the Big Bang is shown in millions of years on the upper left. Even 100 million years after the Big Bang, matter was spread too uniformly across the cosmos for stars to be born. Besides background radiation, the universe was dark. Soon, slight matter clumps rich in hydrogen gas begin to coalesce into the first stars. In the time-lapse video, purple denotes gas, white denotes light, and gold shows radiation so energetic that it ionizes hydrogen, breaking it up into charged electrons and protons. The gold-colored regions also track the most massive stars that die with powerful supernovas. The inset circle highlights a central region that is becoming a galaxy. The simulation continues until the universe was about 550 million years old. To assess the accuracy of the SPHINX simulations and the assumptions that went into them, the results are not only being compared to current deep observations, but will also be compared with more direct observations of the early universe planned with NASA’s pending James Web Space Telescope.

詞彙學習(台語漢字/POJ/KIP/華語漢字/English)

  • 【大霹靂】Tōa-phek-le̍k/Tuā-phik-li̍k/大霹靂/Big Bang
  • 【超新星】chhiau-sin-seng/tshiau-sin-sing/超新星/supernova
  • 【電腦模擬】tiān-náu bô͘-gí/tiān-náu bôo-gí/電腦模擬/computer simulation
  • 【分解】hun-kái/hun-kái/分解/break
  • 【水素氣體】chúi-sò͘ khì-thé/tsuí-sòo khì-thé/氫氣/hydrogen gas
  • 【縮時攝影影片】sok-sî-liap-iáⁿ/sok-sî-liap-iánn/縮時攝影影片/time-lapse video
  • 【精確度】cheng-khak-tō͘/tsing-khak-tōo/精確度/accuracy
  • 【背景輻射】pōe-kéng hok-siā/puē-kíng hok-siā/背景輻射/background radiation
  • 【離子化】lî-chú-hòa/lî-tsú-huà/離子化/ionization
  • 【電子】tiān-chú/tiān-tsú/電子/electron
  • 【質子】chit-chú/tsit-tsú/質子/proton
  • 【紮電】chah-tiān/tsah-tiān/帶電/charged

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